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Informative speech

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Information speech is speech that forms in students new knowledge about objects and phenomena of the objective world. Aristotle’s classification doesn’t have such a speech, since he interpreted the rhetoric “as the ability to find possible ways of persuasion about each given subject.” [6, 19] Today, however, informational speech should be recognized as one of the most common in human communication. Actually, communication by many researchers is defined as the transfer of information or the exchange of information. Thus, in the International Encyclopedia of Communication, 1989, the introductory article says: “The main task of this new discipline - the theory of communication - is to trace all the ways in which information, ideas and attitudes are distributed among individuals , groups, nations and generations. "We will not reduce communication only to the transfer of information, because communicants can not only realize this goal in communication. But it must be remembered that informational speech is very widespread and has the most more genres.

Sometimes information speech is understood as any manipulation of information: “Informative - the purpose of which is various operations with information: presenting it or requesting, confirming or refuting it.” [111, 91] However, if we understand the purpose of speech as setting for a specific reaction of listeners, then one cannot agree with such an interpretation. Presentation of Information and the confirmation (and then only as a primary genre - such as "Yes, we got the books you sent"), indeed, correspond to the target setting of information speech. Information request carried out using the issue (primary genre) orquery speech (secondary genre), which are types of speech calling for action, the task of which is to encourage the interlocutor to communicate information, give advice, suggestions, etc. Rebuttal - a genre of persuasive speech, the task of which is to change the prevailing view of an object or phenomenon. This should also include confirmation speech (secondary genre), whose task is to prove the correctness of the proposed thesis.

Among the information speeches, two large semantic varieties stand out. The first includes speeches aimed at transmitting objective information new to the listener. To the second - speech, in whom he considered necessary to inform listeners of his point of view. (Primary genres stand out in italics.)

Thus, the purpose of actual informational speech is the formation of new knowledge in students, the stimulation of curiosity. Moreover, new knowledge can be subjective (i.e., new to this listener - lecture, consultation, explanation, instruction etc.) and objectively (i.e., new to all people -report, report, certificate etc.). Therefore, we define the situation common to all informational speeches as the situation of the absence (conscious or unconscious) of the recipient of the information he needs, which results in the need for its transmission.

In specific situations, the purpose of the communication of information is realized in various tasks, which involves varieties of information speech - its genres: communication of information about yourself - performance, communication of information about an object or phenomenon - explanation, about how to perform an action - instruction, about events or facts - message etc.

The purpose of the second kind of informational speeches is to communicate your point of view. In this case, the speaker does not have an expressed intention to influence the feelings or beliefs of another person (this can only be in a super task), but wants to talk about what he thinks about the situation, how he relates to the situation or how he evaluates a person, subject, circumstances. Moreover, the primary genres basically come down to expressing either their positive assessment (consent, permission, approval), or a negative rating (denial, prosecution, conviction, warning) It is important to note that unlike the secondary genre indictment primary accusation it does not aim to convince the audience, but merely states the presence of some anti-social phenomenon. Secondary in this group are opinion, keynote speech, commentary. Keynote speech involves in the official situation of the meeting a message about his creed, his vision of the situation or his understanding of the movement of the society (organization) forward. Comment It is an explanation of the meaning of a relevant socially significant event. Here, cause-effect relationships between events should be highlighted, possible consequences of what is happening, etc. should be indicated. A characteristic feature commentary is an open authorial position.

An interesting kind of informational speech of this kind is provocative speech. “Provocative speech is a special type of speech, designed internally to receive some response information - either known to the person who provokes it or unknown (in this case they speak of“ eliciting ”information).” [29, 60] In other words, in this case the speaker reports on his particular attitude to the subject or event or talks about some facts, having as a super task to receive from the addressee some information that he would hardly want to communicate in another case. “Obviously, a person does not want to share any information. In this case, provocative speech takes on special features: its basis is insidiousness, the desire to replay the interlocutor.” [29, 65–66] example from the cited manual: "You cannot win this match." - "No, I can. I went through a series of trainings with special loads and now I am in very good shape." As can be seen from this example, provocative speech (first replica) has the appearance of the primary genre (although in fact it is thought out in advance).

Thus, the subject of informational speech is the entire diversity of the world: people, things, concepts, phenomena, events, facts, scientific hypotheses, etc. The thesis of informational speech is a proposition, the predicative part of which contains new information about the subject. Therefore, when inventing a thesis, one should think about what and to what extent the audience knows about the subject. The novelty of the communicant should arouse interest and curiosity, but at the same time be accessible to understanding and perception.

Interest for informational speech, it is such an important category that it should be specifically mentioned. “Interest is a selective attitude of a person to an object because of its vital significance and emotional attractiveness.” [50, 325] An interesting speech is not so much containing entertaining and entertaining elements as it is related to pressing problems of the audience. Therefore, for informational speeches, dividing into conventional andinitiative (see § 8). For conventional informational genres, a detailed justification of the usefulness of the proposed information is not required, since listeners are preconfigured for it and there is a request for certain information (academic lecture, consultation, report etc.). On the contrary, a presentation with an initiative informational speech should be preceded by a more or less extensive introduction with a justification of the necessity and usefulness of the proposed information for students, since this is the condition for a creative rethinking of information. If the speaker, without any explanation, decided to tell the accounting staff about the latest space research, and to the students of the agricultural academy about the new rolling mill, he should not be surprised that the students will not be interested in the information offered, even if it is of high quality and correctly presented. The less is the connection between the current interests of the audience and the topic of the alleged speech, the more voluminous and evidence-based the introduction should be with the justification of the usefulness of this particular information for the audience: "Recently, in our city, cockroaches have become a truly natural disaster. They breed with extraordinary speed and appeared even in those houses where they had never been before. All the cockroaches offered on sale are ineffective, however, their overdose can lead to poisoning of people, and recently the number of cases of such poisoning has been increasing. Obviously, you have already encountered this problem. Therefore, I want to tell you about the services to combat cockroaches and other insects offered by our sanitary and epidemiological station .... "Thus, when developing an informational speech, it is imperative to ask yourself the question: why should the audience listen to this information, why should it do so. Moreover, the answer cannot sound like this:" out of curiosity "," for general development ", but must justify the practical favor speech.

The only genre that does not directly target the listeners' current interests is popular science lecture. Only in it is it possible to pose "eternal" problems, reasoning about general issues. However, there should also be an introduction that would indicate the relevance and importance of the problem under consideration. The difference from other genres is that in this case we are not talking about personal (or group) relevance for the audience, but about the importance of this problem for society, the state, and humanity. Compare, for example, as the author of the popular science lectures (Task number 49) leads the audience to the realization of the importance of the problem: since earthlings speak different languages, it is very difficult for them to understand each other, which allows him to arouse interest in the topic. Interest is required to enhance the intellectual activity of people, and this, as a rule, is the ultimate task of the lecture. Real, well read lecturenecessarily makes people think, it stimulates reflection, that is, carries out an “intellectual assault”.

In this genre, a speaker can use paradoxes, “enticing” tricks, etc., for example, “As an embryo from an almost invisible and visible only through a microscope, a fertilized egg develops into a football player weighing two hundred pounds? "(P. Soper) In other informational genres (especially in business speech), such techniques are usually ineffective.

It is worth noting here that almost all textbooks on rhetoric when considering informational speech refer specifically to the genre of popular sciencelectures and ignored by all others. Therefore, themes for the presentation are proposed, for example, such as: “Life in a medieval castle”, “How the steel mill works”, “A fascinating story about the oriental carpet”, “Excursion to the radio studio”, “What is a world bank”, “Principles of reconstruction jet aircraft "," Life among the Eskimos ", etc. (P. Soper) For all other genres, such topics are impossible in principle (cf .: presentation, report, certificate, briefing, proposal, consultation, comment etc.). But also as part of the popular science lectures the proposed topics cannot but cause complaints: they are so far from the immediate interests of university humanities students (who are supposed to be addressed) that unusual tricks will be needed to interest the audience. In real practice and for popular science lectures it is better to choose topics closer to the interests of the audience.

The basic principle of building informational speech is a consistent and clear presentation of the content. The speaker should strive for a comprehensive and complete examination of the subject of speech. For example, if the task of the presentation is to tell tourists about Volgograd, then you must first invent a speech thesis, and then develop a consistent and consistent consideration of it. For example, the thesis: "Volgograd is a city with a glorious and military history." Then first we talk about the creation of the city and its role in the defense of the southern borders of Russia, then about its role in peasant uprisings, then about the events of the Civil War, and finally about the Battle of Stalingrad, that is, we choose the historical principle. In any case, a sense of the forward movement of speech should be obvious to the audience. That is why the construction of a detailed abstract plan for information speech is important like no other. At the same time, the presentation logic should be completely clear to the audience, and the proposed material should be new and non-banal. For most information genres (especially business language), the novelty and usefulness of information is the core that supports the interest and attention of listeners and does not require special techniques to arouse interest. (Wed: report ATC duty officer on the operational situation in the city for the last day, report directorate to the shareholders of the enterprise, consultation a specialist for residents who want to install a telephone, on the rules of telephone installation at home, etc.).

Of course, these are just general principles of informational speech. The content itself and the methods of its presentation (speech construction) are very specific in specific genres, so we will consider several characteristic information genres.

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