Korovin Sergey Dmitrievich
Master of Architecture, graduated from Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. 11 years of experience in design and construction.
If you plan to replace or insert new windows, you need to study the installation process. It all depends on how you will install the windows: either with your own hands, or involving a third-party company. It takes approximately 4 hours to dismantle and install the structure if you are not experienced in this matter. For a company employee who does this often, such work will take no more than an hour. But installing windows with a swing-out mechanism on your own requires building skills.
Window System Options
Before proceeding with the installation, it is necessary to understand the nuances and details. To get started, you should find out all the names of parts and materials. The main bearing part is the frame. In the version of plastic windows, its production is carried out from a plastic profile, which can be single-chamber, two-chamber, etc. In the center of the structure is a special insert for stiffness. In plastic systems, this insert is made of plastic, in metal-plastic, metal is used.
The profile system is assembled from 2 or more cameras
In addition, the profile is divided into classes: premium, standard and economy. All profiles, which are manufactured at the factory, are subject to certain standards. If you want to opt for good pivoting windows, take the standard class. White windows are most often found in color, however other colors can be used: wood-like, brown. Products from a color profile will be more expensive than white.
Components of a plastic window
The design of the plastic window includes the following details:
- frame - the main structural part,
- if you have a large window, most often it is separated by a vertical partition, there may be several of them - it all depends on the choice of design,
- the part that is motionless is called the deaf, and the part that opens is called the sash,
- double-glazed windows can be with different properties, for example, tinted, energy-saving, reinforced, using inert gas. In addition, they can be single-layer, two-layer, three-layer or multi-layer - the choice is great,
- in order for the glasses to hold firmly, they are pressed with a glazing bead, which is a thin plastic bar. For tightness, a rubber sealant is used, most often black,
- hardware is always used - this is a special set of swing-out mechanisms that help to open and close sashes and provide various functionality,
- seals are also needed to ensure the integrity of the entire structure,
- ventilated holes for drainage are made on the inside of the frame, which are covered by caps. The moisture that forms when the temperature changes on the street and inside the room gets out through them,
- another part of the structure is the ebb - it is mounted on the outside, and the windowsill is installed on the inside,
- parts located to the side of the frame are finished with slopes.
Is it possible to install the window myself
It is believed that installing windows in a house or apartment is a rather complicated procedure. I must say that this is not so. What do you need to know during installation? To perform these works, special professional tools and equipment, vast experience are not needed. The procedure includes two main points:
- dismantling the old window unit,
- installation of a new window.
If we talk about the time required to complete the work, then for the first stage it will take about an hour and a half. Do-it-yourself windows installation will take less than three hours. It must be said that if, nevertheless, you decide to make a choice in favor of the services of specialists, then certain guarantees should be required from them.
If you installed the hinged windows yourself, this will void your warranty. In this case, it is necessary to purchase designs directly from the manufacturer, who has been working in the market for a long time, has good reviews from customers. If you decide to buy single-chamber or double-chamber windows in the winter, then you can always count on a significant discount.
When a window is purchased from a company that carries out installation work, the customer has a guarantee for hardware for about 5 years. With self-installation, you can get a guarantee directly from the manufacturer, that is, at the place of purchase.
In order for windows to be installed in a brick house, cinder block, gas block or apartment, you first need to order a tilt-and-turn or blind structure from the manufacturer, and for this, accurate measurements are necessary.
Step-by-step instructions for proper metering
When you make an order, you will be required to indicate the following dimensions: the width and height of the structure, the width and length of the slope and window sill.
Before you begin the measurement, do not miss the important point - what kind of opening you have: with a quarter or without. Look carefully at the window opening: if the outer part is already narrow, then there is a quarter opening in front of you. The measurement is carried out as follows: it is necessary to measure the narrowest part, it will be necessary to measure in several places, find the lowest value, add 3 cm to it. The height is indicated as it is. If your opening is even, then the measurements do this: by measuring the width, it is taken away 3 cm, by measuring the height, minus 5 cm. Read the detailed article on measuring windows.
Before measurements, you need to determine the type of window: with a quarter or without
To determine the size of the window sill, you need to add about 10 cm to the width of the opening inside the window. For low tide, the same thing is done, only on the outside of the window. Everyone chooses the width for the windowsill for themselves: it is better if he will protrude a little behind the battery.
In addition, when making an order, you need to decide which components your design will be made of: what variants of two-, three- or single-leaf windows you need, how they will open, on which side the capercaillie is located. Do not forget to determine the type of fittings (handles, locks, ventilation mechanisms).
If you order several designs at the same time, then the width of all the openings may be different, but the height should be the same, you need to choose the smallest size. Please note that window openings may be at different distances from the floor.. In apartments, floor to window windows are approximately 80 cm, while on the balcony windows can be from the floor. Accommodation in a private house can generally be any at the discretion of the owners.
Features of measurements for glazing balconies
To determine the width of the glass structure, it is necessary to measure in length that part of the balcony on which the installation of the balcony window will be made, to mace 7 cm on each side. This distance will be required for the installation of the corner profile, to which the structures of the side elements of the balcony are attached. The height is calculated as the distance from the support to the roof on the balcony or on the loggia, while you must subtract the tolerance of 3 cm for the gap.
Balance Measurement Scheme
If the glazing of balconies is made from the floor, then you need to measure the height, respectively, from the floor to the roof. Side elements are measured in the same way, only 7 cm for the angle profile and 3 cm for the gap with the wall of the house are minus in width. Read more about panoramic glazing of balconies and loggias.
How to make measurements of windows in a country house
For the correct measurement of the dimensions of the structure in a private house, knock out part of the slopes on both sides. It often turns out that the window opening is much larger than the window that is installed in it. This means that when dismantling the structure, at the same time, part of the materials with which the space was filled is also removed.
Preparing to install window construction
After you take out the old window, you will need to inspect the resulting opening, remove all parts that may fall off or collapse, if there are bulging elements, they should be knocked down. Then clean the opening of debris of building origin and dust. In the presence of large recesses, it is better to cover them with cement. You can also treat everything with soil.
Before installation, it will be necessary to clean the base
Having finished work with the opening, you need to prepare the PVC window, the installation of which is to be. To do this, you need to remove the sash window, if it is dull - double-glazed windows. If your frame is small, you can install it without removing the double-glazed windows and sashes. The outer part of the frame should be freed from the film that protects it.
Installation Technology Guide
The finished plastic window is entered into the opening, placed on the support pads and aligned horizontally. After that, with the help of the level, the window is set vertically and fixed in this position with spacer blocks.
Installation of both blind windows and with opening shutters is the same. There are two options for installing windows: with printout design and without. When applying the first option, holes are drilled through the frame through which anchor bolts are driven into the wall. This method is more complex and most reliable.
When installing the window by unpacking, holes are drilled in the frame and wall, where anchors are then driven into Attachment points for anchors and support blocks
If the installation is done without printing the frame, the window is fastened using special anchor mounting plates, which are attached to the profile and then to the wall. This option is faster. However, it should be borne in mind that under significant wind loads, the frame structure may skew or it may sag. If you decide to mount on a plate, you should choose thick, wide options. Please note that if the region in which you live has a strong wind load or you have to install windows at a height, then it is worth using the option with frame printing.
Mounting on anchor plates Anchor plate layout
There are nuances in placing a window in an opening. If the walls are made of foam blocks, brick, cinder block, gas silicate or concrete, then the frame is placed in depth 2/3 of the internal thickness of the opening. If the walls are insulated with polystyrene, then fastening must be done before the insulation layer. When warming and lining with bricks, a window is installed in the insulation zone.
It is very important to choose the correct installation depth
The installation sequence must be observed:
- having inserted the frame, put it into the level, using supporting and spacer blocks,
- further attached to the wall,
- after installing the structure, it is necessary to assemble the window,
- then you need to check the normal operation of the valves and all mechanisms, for this, open and close the window,
- after everything is checked, the sash must be closed tightly and seal the gap around the structure. To do this, use mounting foam.
However, it must be remembered that in direct contact with sunlight and the environment, the material loses its properties and is destroyed. To protect it, it is necessary to create a reliable barrier on both sides of the foamy gap, it can be a special film that needs to be glued on the outer and inner part of the window. After the foam has dried, it is necessary to finish the slopes on both sides (external, internal) of the structure. You can open the window a day after blowing the gap with foam.
In order to correctly install both the ebbs on the windows and the window sills, follow the simple rules:
- we mount the ebb on the outside in a special slot in the frame or we attach it to the screws,
- the window sill is installed as follows: it is necessary to trim it from the edges so that it fits the width of the window opening and rests against the end of the stand profile,
- the level is leveled using special pads, after which the space under the windowsill is blown with foam or filled with a solution.
By the principle of the description above, windows are installed on the balcony or on the loggia, in brick or concrete walls. However, keep in mind that the entire weight of the window structure will bear the parapet, so you need to strengthen it.
Errors that can be made when installing windows
There are a number of points that you should pay attention to when installing the structure so that it has a long term of use:
- it is impossible to mount the window with glazing beads outside, as this reduces the anti-burglary of the structure, since the glazing bead can be easily pulled out and the glass packet removed
- Care must be taken to align the structures to the level during the installation of the window, otherwise opening and closing the shutters will be difficult,
- it is necessary to protect the mounting foam from direct sunlight in order to avoid its destruction,
- the choice of fixing the frame structure only with mounting foam will be wrong: it is necessary to mount it to the wall, otherwise it may just fall out.
Observing all the installation rules, you can successfully mount the window structure yourself, and if you seek the services of professionals, you can control their work at any stage.
Plastic window construction
To properly understand the installation process, you must have an idea of the design of windows. Let's start with the materials and titles. Plastic windows are made of polyvinyl chloride, which is called PVC for short. Hence the second name - PVC windows.
The main element of any window is the frame. For plastic windows, the frame is made of a special multi-chamber profile. It is divided by partitions into a number of cells - cameras. The more of these cells, the warmer the window will be. When they talk about how many cameras will be in the plastic window, they have the number of cells in the profile.
Windows from the same manufacturer with a different number of cameras in the profile
In the middle of the structure, in the largest chamber, an insert of blue color is visible. This is a reinforcing element of increased rigidity. It gives the profile the required strength. In plastic windows, this insert is made of plastic, in metal-plastic windows - of metal (usually - of aluminum). That’s the whole difference between them.
The structure of the metal-plastic window
There is also a division of profiles into classes: economy, standard and premium. The best choice if you need normal windows is the standard class. In the economy class, the partitions are too thin and they begin to freeze almost from the moment of installation. Premium has a high price due to options that, in fact, are not needed.
If you want to have the best profile for plastic windows, take the class standard of any factory. There is no particular difference between the products of different companies. They have been standardized for a long time and all stories of managers about the benefits are fairy tales. If they are manufactured on factory equipment, there is no difference between them: all factory profiles have long been standardized.
Profiles for windows are white in the standard version, but can also be brown - to match the color of any tree, and even pink - to order. Color profile windows are more expensive than similar white ones.
To understand what is meant in the description of the installation process, you need to know what each component of the structure is called.
What a plastic window consists of
- Frames. This is the base of the window.
- If the window consists of several parts, the frame is divided into parts by an impost - a vertical component. If the window is of two parts, the impost is one, If of the three - two, etc.
- The opening part of the window is called the sash, the fixed part - the capercaillie. A double-glazed window is inserted into them - two, three or more glasses, hermetically fastened together. Between the glasses a foil tape is laid, which ensures tightness. There are double-glazed windows with special properties: with reinforced glass, tinted and energy-efficient, which, according to manufacturers, reduces heat loss through the windows. There are also double-glazed windows, between which the inert gas is pumped. It also reduces heat loss.
- Double-glazed windows are pressed to the frame with a hat - a thin plastic bar. The tightness of the connection is provided by a rubber seal (it is usually black).
- Shutter fittings are installed on the wings. This is a specific set of mechanisms that provide opening and locking. They can be different, as they provide different functionality: opening, opening with ventilation, opening + ventilation + micro-ventilation.
- To ensure tightness on all parts - the frame, the impost and the wings - rubber seals are installed.
Below on the outside of the frame (the one that faces the street) there are drainage holes that are closed with special caps. Through them, condensate is formed on the street, which is formed inside due to the temperature difference in the street and in the room.
Another window has an ebb - a board outside, diverting precipitation and a window sill inside. Lateral and upper parts from the side of the street and premises are closed by slopes. Их тоже можно поставить из пластика или сделать по другой технологии.
Как сделать замер пластикового окна
При заказе окон у вас потребуют шесть размеров: высоту и ширину окна, длину и ширину подоконника и откоса. Чтобы правильно все измерить, необходимо определить, с четвертью у вас сделан у вас оконный проем или без.
Opening with a quarter (quarter) and without
Inspect the opening. If the outside of the window is narrower, a quarter-hole. In this case, measurements are taken at the narrowest point: openings rarely have perfect geometry, so you will have to measure at several points. Find the smallest value, add 3 cm to it. Transfer the height as it is.
If the opening is even, the calculation is different. Measure the width and height. Subtract 3 cm from the measured width, 5 cm from the height. This will be the height and width of your window. We remove 3 cm in width, since a gap of at least 1.5 cm on both sides under the mounting foam is required. We subtract 5 cm in height, since the same 1.5 cm are needed on top, and 3.5 cm on the bottom will go to the installation of the windowsill.
The length of the window sill and low tide is taken with a margin of 5-10 cm more than the width of the window opening. During installation, both the ebb and the window sill are "drowned" a little in the adjacent walls, and the excess will go there. In terms of width, the tides are standard, so the nearest larger one is selected. On the windowsills, the situation is different. Its width is chosen arbitrarily - at the request of the owner. Some people like wide ones - so that you can put something, someone prefers flush with the wall. So there are no rules.
When ordering, you will need to indicate how many and what parts will be in your window: whether there is a capercaillie, where it is located, how many cusps, which side they are on, how they should open. It will be necessary to indicate the type of fittings (ventilation, micro-ventilation).
If you change windows, installing plastic windows on your own hands begins with dismantling the old one. Problems usually do not arise: break not build. After dismantling, it is necessary to conduct an audit of the opening: remove everything that may fall off. If there are any protruding parts, they must be removed - with a hammer, chisel or power tool. When the plane is aligned, all construction debris must be removed. Ideally, sweep everything down to dust, otherwise when installing the foam it is bad to “grab” the wall.
Preparing the opening for installation
If there are too large potholes or cavities, it is better to cover them with cement mortar. The smoother the opening, the easier the installation will be. With the loose material of the walls, they can be treated with binders: penetrating adhesive primers.
How to install: choosing the installation method
There are two different methods: with unpacking (disassembling) the window and without it. When unpacking, holes are drilled through the frame, they are driven into the wall of the anchor through them. This method is more complicated, but the mount is more reliable.
This is an installation on an anchor bolt. They are put in three pieces on each side.
When installed without unpacking, metal plates are attached to the outside of the frame, and then to the walls. This, of course, is faster, but the mount is very unreliable: with significant wind loads, the frame is skewed or it sags.
This is fasteners that are most often used by installers. As in my opinion, look unconvincing
If the window really does not want to be disassembled, you can mount it on the plate, but use not narrow and thin, but thick and wide, which are often used when installing the rafter system.
In principle, small windows mounted on mounting plates, provided that there are no significant wind loads, can stand normally. If you live in a region with strong winds, and they blow mainly to your windows, if the apartment is located in a high-rise building on a high floor - in these cases, installation with unpacking is necessary.
Below you can see an emotional and intelligible video that explains why it is better to use an anchor.
DIY plastic windows installation: step-by-step instructions
We will describe both methods: suddenly you need a method with mounting on plates. It is used in buildings of foam blocks, the bearing capacity of which is small and it is necessary to distribute the load from the windows to a large surface. This method of installing plastic windows is also necessary if the building is constructed using “layered” technology. For example, in front and behind concrete, and between them a layer of insulation. If the window should be in a soft layer, then it will need to be fixed with plates. Installation of PVC windows in brick, cinder block, panel, etc. A house is desired on an anchor.
Do-it-yourself installation of plastic windows begins with measurements. Measure the frame and window opening, make sure they are compatible. After you can get to work. The process begins with the dismantling (unpacking) of the PVC window. Here are the steps:
- Remove the window sash:
- Close the window (handle turned down).
- Remove the plastic linings on both loops. They are poked with a screwdriver.
- There is a pin on the upper loop that provides a movable connection. It is centered and protrudes slightly. They press it down until it drowns (you can take a metal plate, rest it on the pin and lightly tap on the plate). The pin will slide out from below. Now you can grab it with side cutters or pliers and pull it down to pull it out.
- Holding the sash at the top, open the lock. To do this, put the handle in a horizontal position. Having rejected the upper part slightly towards you, lift the sash, removing it from the lower pin.
All the shutter has been removed. To make it clearer, watch the video. It describes in detail how to remove and put the sash on a plastic window.
- Remove the window sash:
- On the wood grouse, remove the double-glazed window. He is supported by glazing beads. They need to be removed, then the double-glazed window itself will be removed without problems. Remove glazing beads as follows:
- Something narrow and strong is inserted into the gap between the glazing bead and the frame. If there is no special tool, it is best to use a small spatula. Disassembly begins with one of the long sides.
- The spatula is gently pushed into the crevice with a corner and gradually move the glazing bead away from the frame.
- Without taking out the tool, they advance slightly along, again pushing the glazing bead aside.
- So pass along the entire length. As a result, the glazing bead is almost separated, it is simply taken out.
- On the short side, everything is simpler: the freed edge is pried off and removed by turning the trowel from the groove. Grasp the freed edge with your hand and pull it up.
Now you can try to remove the double-glazed window. Just be careful: it's heavy. If it does not work, remove one of the glazing beads. Just make sure that the window is inclined and the glass does not fall out. Now, if necessary, you can independently replace the double-glazed window. Watch a video on how to remove glazing beads from PVC windows.
- The freed frame around the outer perimeter is glued with a special self-adhesive tape. Its installation is recommended by GOST. With her, the window does not stand up.
Where to glue tapes when preparing a plastic window for installation
Layout of mounting wedges and the distance between fasteners
Check the installation is necessary constantly
Installation of waterproofing tape under the ebb of a plastic window
How to install the ebb and window sill on a plastic window
Low tide foaming
Foaming PVC windows during DIY installation can be carried out in several stages - it depends on the size of the gap
Errors in setting the windowsill and slopes of PVC windows and their correct installation
On how to properly position the window sill when installing a plastic window, watch the video. There are many secrets.
The last set or close up slopes. On this occasion, another video.
Determine the timing
If it is possible to choose the installation time for windows, it is better to do this process in a fairly warm season, preferably from May to September. However, it also happens that, for various reasons, it is necessary to install windows - for example, when moving to a new apartment - and in colder times. There is only one rule: air temperature should not be lower than -5 degrees Celsius, and all installation work should be carried out in dry weather. However, you should not deal with new windows in extreme heat - the consequences of such an installation can be unpredictable.
"Seven times measure cut once"
So, you still decided to install beautiful new windows yourself. In this case, before ordering frames and double-glazed windows, the most important thing is to absolutely accurately make all measurements so that the result does not disappoint you, but delights you for many years.
To do this, it is necessary to carefully measure the window opening, where it is planned to put a new window, from the inside - its width from the base of the wall, and not from existing slopes. If any, then they must be dismantled before measurement. Then we measure the height of the window opening, while it is necessary to take into account which window sill is in your house. If it is possible to remove it, the height is taken into account from the base of the plate on which the window is supposed to be placed. The next parameter is the opening depth. These measurements should also be made taking into account the presence of disassembled elements such as old plaster, battens and planks of the old window. Thus, we completed the internal measurements.
With the external dimensions of the window opening, you also need to be extremely careful. Here we are dealing with the same parameters - width, height and depth. In this case, again, it is necessary to take into account the presence of dismantled parts such as old plaster, cement or a fringing of the bottom of the window opening.
When conducting measurements, it should be noted that the window can narrow and expand due to temperature fluctuations. To do this, it is necessary to leave the appropriate space in the window opening, the minimum size of which is strictly defined.
So, for windows up to 1.2 m indentation of 15 mm is enough, for windows up to 2.2 m - 20 mm, and for windows up to 3 m - 25 mm.
Do not forget that the window does not completely "sit" in the window opening, but only a few centimeters enters it. In other words, at least 4 cm of the distance between the edges of the double-glazed window and the sash itself is necessary in order to be able to make slopes. Thus, it makes sense to order windows only after all measurements are taken taking into account the window edging and all details are taken into account. Do not forget about the fittings and all the necessary elements - a pen, a mosquito net, fasteners for it, a tide and a window sill.
Dismantle the old window
Dismantling the old window is troublesome and rather dirty, since there will be a lot of dust. Therefore, it is worth at least covering with a film all the interior items in the room. However, the best option is if the room is completely freed from furniture, especially upholstered.
To dismantle the old window, you will need a chisel, hammer, mount, hacksaw or jigsaw. The chisel and hammer can be replaced with a punch. First of all, we get rid of the old window leaf or that casement window, which is the smallest in size. Then remove the large sash. After this comes the turn of the internal partition between the wings - it must be sawn and then removed from the frame. Next, we “disassemble” the lower part of the old frame - also using a hacksaw or a jigsaw, and then dismantle the rest of the window.
After the old frame has been dismantled, it is necessary to level the surfaces where the new window will be placed. To do this, you need to chop off all the bumps with a puncher or a chisel and a hammer, and in order to install a new window sill, you need to use these tools to prepare grooves along the openings of the future window.
Now you need to prepare for the relatively "clean" process of installing a new window. To do this, completely free the window opening from debris and dust. The crumbling surface of the opening must be treated with reinforcing primers.
Particular attention should be paid to those places where the sealing tapes will be glued to ensure their reliable fixation. For this, special primers (primers) can be used.
Installation without unpacking
The main details are described above, so this chapter is small. Installation begins according to this option with the installation of mounting plates. They are of two types: U-shaped and linear. It is important to choose the most reliable of thick metal.
Two types of plates for mounting plastic windows
They are installed at the same distance as the anchor: 150-250 mm from the edge and not more than 700 mm between the middle ones. Screw them simply with screws to the profile.
Fastening the plate to the profile
Then, installing the plastic windows with your own hands with mounting plates is identical to that described above, starting from the moment the window was set to the level in the opening. Only they attach not the frame, but the plates and not on the anchor, but on the dowel-nails. They drill a hole, bend the plate, insert the dowel, putting the plate in place, screw the dowel. Further, all actions are identical.
Now it’s clear why the installers prefer them: a decent piece of work with disassembling, anchoring, etc. goes away: it is much easier to twist the screws. True, if you take powerful plates, they will hold tight. No worse than an anchor. For example, such as in the video.
Anchor or plate?
One of the main points that you should decide before installing a new window is the method of fastening. You may prefer to “seat” the window profile on the anchor or on the mounting plates. Each of these methods has its own peculiarities, and therefore, for the right choice, it is necessary to take into account a number of nuances of your room, and first of all, the material from which the walls are made.
If the window opening is in a brick or panel wall, then there is practically no difference what kind of fastening to use. But you definitely should choose the mount on the mounting plates, if you put the windows in the building of aerated concrete or foam blocks.
By the way, this is the easiest way of fastening, which even non-professionals can handle. At the same time, you definitely won't get the size of the double-glazed windows, and you will save a fair amount of time. However, there is still a drawback - the window on the mounting plates may “tremble” somewhat due to the not quite tight fit of the fastened elements to each other. Since the mounting plates are attached to the profile, and not through it, as in the case of anchors, when holes are made in the profile.
However, another method of attachment - to the anchor - has a more significant drawback. In the case of using this method, there is a great risk of depressurization of the cameras of a new window, since the profile is drilled through. Thus, the temperature balance inside the windows of the double-glazed window - from the coldest from the side of the street to the warmest from the inside of the room can be violated.
Moreover, mounting on an anchor requires a certain professionalism from the installer, since the slightest inaccuracies in drilling a profile can lead to gaps, incomplete closing of the window sashes and so on. However, such a fastener, made in compliance with all the rules, is more durable and guarantees the absence of vibration in strong winds. Moreover, the probability of subsidence of a new window is almost zero.
If necessary, you can use both methods of fastening, but it all depends primarily on the material of the wall in which the window opening is made. In any case, the first fixture should be located at a distance of 12-15 cm from the inner corner of the profile. And all subsequent ones are placed at a distance of 60-70 cm from each other. At the same time, at least three fasteners must be made on each side of the profile. The location of the fastening elements depends on the type of profile, size and color of the window box and are governed by the requirements of GOST 30971-2012.
"We plant" a profile in a window opening
Before starting this stage of work, it is necessary to achieve alignment of the planes on all sides of the window opening - we will set the profile on them. The easiest way to check surfaces is with a level. In order for the profile to ideally "sit" in the opening, you need to insert it and align it vertically, placing polymer mounting wedges or antiseptic bars made of hardwood from below. This adjustment is carried out strictly from the top of the window opening.
Only after you are convinced of the smooth landing of the window in the opening, it is worth proceeding to its final fixation.
If you fasten a profile to mounting plates, then begin to fix the first of them for a start with one hollow nail. The second nail-hole can be used only after you make sure with the help of the level that the profile “sits” absolutely evenly.
If you prefer to work with anchors, then after you drill holes in the wall, do not rush to tighten the screws screwed through the holes in the fastening profile. First make sure that the window is “planted” evenly. And even if everything is normal in this regard, then tighten the anchor very slowly, making sure that the profile does not lead, and its geometry is not broken.
In both cases, the wooden wedges fixing the profile in the window opening should be removed only after its final fixation with fasteners. And the first to remove the wedges from above, and then from the sides of the window. The lower ones should remain under the profile, since they are essentially its foundation.
What a plastic window consists of
First, consider the design of the plastic window. Without this, you will not understand the installation process itself.
Plastic windows are made of a special material called PolyVinyl Chloride. Therefore, abbreviated plastic windows are called PVC windows. As with any window, the main element of a PVC window is a frame made of a profile consisting of cells. Чем больше в раме таких ячеек (еще их называют камерами), тем более теплым будет окно.
Как правило, цвет рамы белый. Хотя пластик может быть и черным, и коричневым, и даже цветным. Самый распространенный и самый бюджетный вариант – пластиковые окна белого цвета.
Кроме того, окно состоит из открывающейся части (створки) и неподвижной части, которую называют «глухарем». A double-glazed window is directly inserted into these parts of the window, which is pressed to the frame with a special plastic strip. A black rubber seal is placed for tightness.
Special mechanisms are installed on the sash, with which the window opens and closes.
In addition, the window outside has a so-called ebb tide - a small board with which rainfall is removed, and slopes - plates that seal the side and top parts from the side of the street.
Before ordering, and, accordingly, installing a plastic window, it is necessary to make several measurements. And how your design will fit into a window opening depends on how carefully they are done. Remember that accurate measurements are almost half the success. If you take the measurements incorrectly, when installing plastic windows with your own hands, the design simply will not enter the opening. In addition, windows may start to freeze.
First you need to carefully inspect the opening. If the part of the window that is smaller on the outside is measured at the narrowest point. Moreover, it is highly desirable to make several of them, because window openings are rarely perfectly even. Find the smallest measurement value, and add 3 to it. Measure the height, leave its value as it is.
If the window has the same size both inside and outside, measurements are made a little differently. It is necessary to measure the width and height. Then you need to subtract 5 cm from the height, and 3 from the width. This will be the full size of your window, with width and height. We take away the values in order to leave gaps for the installation of the window sill and special mounting foam.
Each owner chooses a window sill according to the size that he wants. Some people like wide window sills, some narrow ones, and others make them at the wall level. This is individual, and there are no rules here. This applies to width.
The window sill and the ebbs should be taken with a margin in length - about 10 cm wider than the window opening.
Getting ready to install
Do-it-yourself installation of plastic windows always starts with the fact that the old window is dismantled. As a rule, even for beginner builders, dismantling is especially easy.
After you break out the old window, you need to carefully inspect the opening and remove anything that may fall off later. If any parts of the opening after dismantling protrude from the walls, they must also be removed and the surfaces smoothed. Potholes, if any. Cement should be repaired.
When installing PVC windows yourself, you must consider the following circumstances:
- plastic window construction should be carefully fixed,
- the window structure must be aligned exactly both horizontally and vertically, otherwise in the future it may simply be skewed,
- it is necessary to plaster the mounting foam from all sides, with which the structure is fixed, also in order to avoid further problems such as deformation.
The technology of installing plastic windows
Do-it-yourself plastic window is mounted as follows:
- on four sides, fix the structure with the help of wedges, and determine how accurately the frame is relative to the opening,
- fasten the frame with special bolts,
- fasten the structure with screws to the wooden part,
- Seal the plastic structure with foam, spreading it over a surface slightly moistened with water.
However, these are very general recommendations, and it is necessary to dwell on how to properly insert a plastic window with your own hands, in more detail.
You need to start with the fact that there are two different ways to install plastic windows with your own hands.
The first way is that in the window frame, holes are drilled for special anchors that drive into the wall. This is a rather difficult method, but a more reliable mount.
The second way is to first attach metal plates to the frame from the outside, and only then these plates are attached to the walls. This is a much simpler and faster way, but such a mount is not reliable. The frame can simply be skewed even in strong winds. Therefore, if you still decide to make your life easier, and install the plastic window with your own hands in the second way, use thick and wide metal plates. In this case, you can give your plastic construction greater reliability. However, if it is very windy in your city, this method is definitely not suitable for you.
Installation of a plastic window with your own hands in the first way with reliable fastening is as follows.
First you need to check whether the design and the window opening are combined. If everything is in order, proceed directly to the installation.
First you need to remove the window sash. For this:
- turn the window handle down, putting the window in the "closed" position, and remove it with the screwdriver from the hinges of the lining,
- pull out the pin that is on the top loop,
- open the shutter by turning the window handle to a horizontal position, after which, by lifting the window sash, you can easily remove it from the lower pin.
After you have removed the sash, you need to remove the double-glazed window on the "wood grouse". For this:
- insert a small spatula or something similar, strong enough, thin and not wide, into the gap between the frame and glazing bead
- move the glazing bead with a spatula, passing along the entire length, and remove it from the frame.
After that, it is already quite easy to take out the double-glazed window itself. The main thing is that it does not fall out of the frame after it was stopped by the glazing beads you removed. To avoid this, the window should be tilted.
The frame is freed from the double-glazed window, and now it should be glued around the perimeter with a special tape. This tape is needed so that the window retains heat.
As a rule, white self-adhesive protective tapes are glued to the frames. It is also advisable to remove them, because then, when they heat up in the sun and stick to the frame, fused with it, it will be difficult to do. In the meantime, the tape is removed very easily.
Now the frame needs to be inserted into the window opening. To do this, you need mounting wedges that are placed in the corners (this is a mandatory requirement), as well as in other places where you consider it necessary.
With the help of a drill and drill, special holes are made into which fasteners are inserted. The first hole is drilled at a distance of 1.5 - 2 cm from the upper edge. The bottom hole should be approximately the same distance from the bottom corner. The gap between the two mounts should not be more than 5-7 cm.
They hammer into the hole, and then tighten the anchor. At the same time, it is necessary to tighten the anchor carefully, trying not to overtighten, otherwise the profile will bend, and this should not be allowed. This operation - tightening the anchors - continues as many times as necessary.
After this, ebbs should be installed outside. Before installation, stick on that part of the frame that is outside, a self-adhesive waterproofing. Sideways in the openings make gates (there then you will need to make the edges of these ebbs).
On that part of the opening where the ebb will lean against the wall, a special profile is installed, to which then the ebb will be attached. If the height difference is small, the profile can not be installed, but simply apply a layer of mounting foam. Then the ebb should be brought under the ledge of the frame, and attach to it with screws. At the lower boundary, the tide also needs to be filled with mounting foam.
Next, fill the opening itself with foam, so that there are no gaps or gaps between the frame and the opening.
Now, we will consider in detail the second way of installing plastic windows with your own hands - using plates.
This method is much simpler, although, as we have said, less reliable. Installation according to this method involves the installation of thick metal plates.
They should be installed at the same distance as the anchor in the first installation method - approximately 2 cm from the edge, and not more than 7 cm between those in the middle. Metal plates are simply screwed to the profile using self-tapping screws.
In all other respects, the installation of plastic windows with one's own hands completely coincides with the first installation method. In the same way, a window is set in three planes according to the level, after which all actions are identical. Simply, unlike the first method, metal plates are not fastened to the frame itself, and they are mounted on so-called dowel nails. The fastening feature is that they first drill a hole, then bend the metal plate, insert the dowel into the hole, put the plate in place and screw the dowel.
The main mistakes when installing plastic windows do-it-yourself
If you install plastic windows incorrectly, this can lead to the fact that the house will be cold, water will flow into the room through improperly mounted tides. And the expensive structures themselves will quickly become worthless. And even if professional installers make mistakes sometimes when installing PVC windows, then they certainly are not immune to the amateur who installs plastic windows with his own hands.
Let's look at the 10 most common mistakes that are made when installing plastic windows.
Window size selected incorrectly
Usually this is a consequence of incorrect, careless measurement of the window opening, and, accordingly, the manufacture of an unsuitable window structure. And in case the window is too large in size. And in case the size is very small, it is simply impossible to install such structures.
Poor preparation of the window opening
If the surfaces are poorly cleaned, construction debris, dust, potholes or, on the contrary, parts of the wall protrude on the surface of the opening, construction foam will not stand as tight and even as it is necessary for high-quality installation of plastic windows with your own hands. In addition, this kind of pollution absorbs moisture very well, and it will soon be inside your apartment.
Ignoring Wall Thermal Insulation
If a plastic window is installed without taking into account the thermal insulation of the wall, then cold air will enter the joints at the joints. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the layers of walls when installing plastic windows. If the wall consists of one layer, the window should be positioned exactly in the middle of the wall. If the wall is two-layer, the window should be installed on the very edge, as close to the insulation as possible. And if the wall is three-layer, then it is necessary to install the PVC window directly in the plane of insulation of the wall, in order to avoid heat loss.
Incorrect distance between window frame and slope
If the window frame is too close to the slope, then the seal in this place will be of poor quality, and moisture will begin to appear and accumulate in these places. If the frame, on the contrary, is located too far from the slope, then there is a risk of deformation, since the load on the anchors or metal plates is too great.
Incorrect window sill size
The window sill should be somewhat narrower than the window frame itself. If it is of a different size, or it was decided not to install it at all, then water will penetrate under the window frame due to the lack of a normal seal in this place, and as a result, the wall will constantly be wet. Metal parts can simply corrode over time.
Lack of insulation tape
If you decide not to use the insulating tape laid in accordance with GOST on the inside and outside of the window structure, be prepared for the fact that the insulation will gradually become worse and worse. Accordingly, the windows will become unusable much faster than you would like.
Therefore, if you decide to install a plastic window with your own hands, try to go through all the necessary steps and perform all the necessary actions in a quality, accurate and slow manner. Then your beautiful plastic windows, installed by your own hands, will delight you and your household for many years.
We mount the tide of the window and close the mounting seams
At this stage of work, you will need the same vapor-proof tape and self-tapping screws, and assembly foam is also added. Once again, the most important thing is the correct measurements of the future ebb, we adjust using metal scissors. The waterproofing vapor-permeable tape must be glued on the bottom of the profile - it will protect the seam between the window and the wall from below under the ebb. For sound insulation of the ebb, butyl tape is glued to its lower part, or in the form of a backup between the ebb and the lower part of the opening, the PSUL tape is installed along the outer edge. It must be connected to the profile with self-tapping screws; first, the tide must be “planted” in the corresponding grooves of the window.
To seal installation joints, use special installation foam for installing windows, with minimal secondary expansion, to avoid possible deformation of the window box during its polymerization. First, we process the seam between the wall and the profile on the left side, then on the right. We finish the seams on the top and bottom of the window. Previously, the surface of the wall needs to be slightly moistened. A few minutes later, when the foam expanded and the process of its polymerization began, on top of it onto the wall we glue the second part of the vapor barrier tape around the window.
Install double-glazed windows and sash windows
We proceed to one of the final stages of installation. First you need to remove the protective film from the inside of the window. Then, using special pads, we install a double-glazed window, making sure that it is evenly placed in the opening. It is possible to fix a double-glazed window using the fixing strips hammered into the grooves of the window. To do this, it is convenient to use a rubberized hammer.
Only then install the sash on the awnings. And after fixing the handle, it is necessary to adjust the sash both horizontally and vertically. And only after that, if necessary, install a mosquito net.
We establish a window sill
How much your work will look good and how convenient it will be for you to use your new window will largely depend on this stage. In this case, the window sill should not completely isolate the warm air from the battery from the actual window.
We prepare a “pillow” for the windowsill - we place wooden blocks of at least 10 cm long, which will be the basis for it. It should be noted that the window sill should be pressed as tightly as possible to the window from below, while the angle of inclination towards the room should not exceed 5 degrees.
It is very important before processing the window sill from the bottom with foam, to check how well it holds in place. If you did everything correctly, then there will simply be no need to use any additional methods of fastening. And for temporary fixation of it in a window opening, while the mounting foam dries, you can put a load on the windowsill, for example, five-liter water bottles.