A dressing is understood to mean a special device, the purpose of which is to fasten dressings on the patient's body.
A means to stop bleeding
A pressure dressing creates a constant onslaught on a certain part of the body. It is used not only for heavy bleeding from a cut or wound, but also, if necessary, to quickly stop arterial bleeding. This method is used as a last resort, as it can lead to serious lesions.
Features of the pressure dressing
This type of dressing, like any other, has its own characteristic components. In addition to the required elements (a sterile napkin placed on a wound or cut, a pad and a gauze bandage), it comes with a special pressure pad in its kit. As it is allowed to use a dressing bag.
The pressure cushion has its own functional responsibilities. In this regard, it must meet certain requirements and characteristics. These include: flexibility (for a better fit to the body surface), size (it should be large enough to cover the entire wound) and density (apply even pressure to the wound and its edges, while very tight can lead to increased bleeding) .
After some time of such an onslaught, the wound site is covered, and the blood stops flowing.
Why is it important not to disturb circulation?
If you apply this type of dressing to the site of injury, be careful not to transmit the veins, thereby preventing blood flow. Otherwise, a sharp slowdown or even a complete stop of the movement of blood (stasis) is possible. Such a violation of blood circulation can provoke an increase in blood pressure in the veins above the site of injury and, as a result, increased bleeding.
When the dressing is impaired or the wrong material is used, symptoms of stasis are observed: the fingers on the injured arm or leg begin to turn blue.
How to apply a pressure bandage?
The correct application of a pressure bandage is very important. For this purpose, it is allowed to use a special dressing bag or improvised means, but it is very important that they are sterile.
When applying a pressure dressing, observe the following sequence of actions:
- Open the sealed packaging of the sterile bag and place a sterile tissue on the wound site.
- The napkin must be fixed on the wound by making two or three circular passages with a bandage.
- Further, the technique of applying this type of dressing involves applying a pressure pad. Make sure that it evenly covers the edges of the wound or cut. If you do not have the right pillow on hand, its function can be performed by a regular dressing bag.
- Tightly fix the pressure pad with a bandage, making a few circular movements around the wounded limb. The onslaught must be such that the flow of blood from the wound stops.
- After that, carefully monitor for symptoms of stasis and stop the flow of blood from the wound.
- If the bleeding has not stopped, additionally apply a pressure pad on the surface of the wound.
- Whatever the bleeding, make sure that the rest of the affected part is ensured. It is also advisable to slightly raise it. This is especially true for injured limbs.
If there is no sterile dressing bag at hand, a kerchief can be used as a pressure dressing, which must be folded before that.
The technique of applying a scarf dressing is similar to the previous technique:
- First of all, put on a sterile gauze napkin and fix it with a bandage.
- When folded, put the bandage on the wound site covered with a sterile napkin. Its ends should protrude on both sides to the same length.
- Then apply a pressure pad.
- Cross the protruding edges, tie them with a knot.
- Make sure that there is no stasis, but the flow of blood from the wound has stopped.
Important! If there is any foreign body in the wound, then applying a pressure bandage before its safe removal is strictly prohibited! Also, washing the wound or cut with normal running water is not allowed. This can be done with a three percent solution of hydrogen peroxide.
Thanks to the correct and timely treatment of places of injuries and cuts, the development of many complications can be avoided.
What is a pressure dressing
An effective way to eliminate bleeding is a special fixation. It can be used to combat moderate to severe venous capillary and arterial bleeding. The method is used when there are no other methods, because it can cause serious complications. The dressing consists of a bandage, a sterile napkin and a pad, which is flexible, covering the entire damaged area and adhering to the skin. Pressure dressings help heal wounds and stop bleeding.
When to apply pressure dressings
Often use a pressure bandage for bleeding from veins and capillaries. In addition, it helps to eliminate the light and medium flow of blood from the arteries. The technique is used to prevent bleeding after surgery (phlebectomy or mastectomy).
For injuries, a pressure dressing is also necessary, which is applied correctly. so as not to disturb the normal circulation of blood and not squeeze the blood vessels. The incorrect procedure is indicated by a decrease in temperature at the site of damage, increased blood flow, and blue skin on the nails and fingers.
The rules for applying a pressure bandage help to avoid unpleasant consequences. The sequence of actions depends on the material used for dressing and the location of the wound. The technique is suitable to combat bleeding from a vein in any area of the body. When blood flows from arteries, a tourniquet is placed on the thigh and shoulder. If it is absent, then you can use the dressing bag, tightly bandaged the damaged area.
The rules for applying a pressure bandage help to avoid unpleasant consequences.
The application of a pressure dressing, the algorithm of which is simple, is used to injure the body and head. If the veins in the neck are damaged, special techniques must be used. A person providing first aid may not have a medical education, but must know the algorithm of action.
Using a dressing bag
A dressing bag can be purchased at a pharmacy, taken in a car or at the factory. The procedure is as follows:
- clean hands by washing them with soap or dousing with alcohol, furatsilinom or vodka,
- treat the place of damage
- remove the napkin and apply it to the wound,
- fix by wrapping with a bandage 2-3 times,
- apply a pressure pad on top and tightly fix with a bandage.
If the blood goes hard and the pillow is quickly saturated, then another one is placed on top, securing with a bandage. 15 minutes after the procedure, the bandages are weakened if there are signs of circulatory disorders. When using the technique, you must follow the sequence of actions and properly handle the wound. It is forbidden to wash it with an antiseptic, but it is necessary to treat the area around the damage, moving from edge to periphery.
If there is small debris in the wound, then it is carefully removed. In the presence of a stuck piece of glass and other dense materials they are not removed, because they close the vessel, and extraction will cause severe bleeding. In addition, fragments of bone may come out of the wound area, which prevents the application of a bandage.
In order not to affect them, you will need to cut a hole in the napkin and place a pressure pad, without affecting the bone structure. If the bandage was applied to the lower leg, then the limb must be placed on a hill to reduce blood flow. If the arm is damaged, it must be bandaged to the body.
The technique can be used in an emergency to reduce the time for dressing. To do this, use a piece of gauze or fabric folded in the form of a scarf. A pressure dressing is applied, observing the algorithm:
- carry out the treatment of wounds and hands,
- place a napkin or tampon on the area of damage,
- apply a scarf in the middle to the site of injury, the ends should be the same size,
- cross the edges of the bandage, pressing the pillow to the body, and fix it with a knot.
The technique can be used in an emergency to reduce the time for dressing.
The assembly should not be above the damage area. This technique is used for a wound on the head, shoulder, arm, knee, chin, thigh, or shoulder joint. A kerchief can be used to suspend a leg or arm to reduce the risk of increased blood flow and bone displacement during a fracture.
Head and Torso Injury
The method allows you to stop bleeding from wounds that are on the body and head. The pressure pad is fixed so that it covers the entire area of damage and fits snugly against it. If there is a deep wound channel and severe bleeding, then before starting the application do a tamponade, introducing tampons into the wound. After that, the remaining steps of the procedure are carried out.
In case of damage to the neck, a correct bandage is required. For this, a damaged vessel is pressed with a finger to the spine. A sterile napkin and a pressure bandage are placed in the region of the carotid artery, fixing it with a tourniquet to the raised arm from the opposite side, if there is no splint or board.
The procedure is an emergency in this case. In the future, the victim must be taken to the hospital for professional assistance and complete stopping of bleeding.
Applying a tourniquet and pressure bandage
If a person has severe bleeding from an artery, then to prevent a large loss of blood and death of the patient, it is necessary to use a tourniquet. When it is not at hand, you can take a belt or any not too narrow stretchable material. A massive flow of blood is most often observed with damage to the vessels of the leg, thigh of the forearm or shoulder.
The location of the wounds may be different, but the tourniquet is applied to the thigh or shoulder, avoiding the lower leg and forearm. Bandaging a bleeding wound with a tourniquet should be carried out according to the rules:
- fix the tourniquet above the wound 3-5 cm,
- squeeze the vessel before application,
- Do not impose a tourniquet on a naked body (it is recommended to put a piece of matter under it).
Stretching the tourniquet and applying it around the limb allows you to stop bleeding. The device can not be covered with anything. If the upper limbs are damaged, the tourniquet is applied for 1.5 hours, and when the lower limbs are injured - for 2 hours. In winter, the duration is half an hour. Information on the application time of the tourniquet is recorded in open areas of the skin in hours and minutes, since a piece of paper that is placed under the tourniquet may be lost.
The location of the wounds may be different, but the tourniquet is applied to the thigh or shoulder, avoiding the lower leg and forearm.
If transportation takes a long time, then the tourniquet must be loosened hourly for 10 minutes. During this period, bleeding is stopped by pressing the finger to the vessel. The tourniquet is applied correctly if there is no pulsation and pallor of the skin in the lower part of the body. If the tourniquet is not tightened enough, then the limb begins to turn blue.
An occlusive dressing is used with open pneumothorax, when air accumulates in the pleural cavity due to the open wound channel in the chest. A bandage helps prevent air from entering the chest. First, the skin around the affected area must be lubricated with petroleum jelly and a material that does not allow air to pass through, for example, polyethylene.
The dressing should cover the wound and the skin around it. A pressure pad or cotton swab and gauze folded in several layers are placed on top. When you inhale, the material covers the damaged surface, isolating it from the penetration of air.
The procedure will require absorbent cotton and several layers of sterile gauze. Such a dressing is applied to the damage area itself. It is suitable for covering a tampon or drainage inserted into a wound to remove lymph or purulent masses. In this way, toxins and harmful bacteria are removed from the wounded area, protecting the wound from the repeated spread of infection.
The procedure accelerates the healing process. If the patient is given an aseptic dressing, then you need to make sure that it is not soaked in blood. When this happens, the tissue with the blood is changed to clean or an additional layer of bandages and cotton wool is applied.